The Academic Book of the Future: exploring academic practices and expectations for the monograph

Well hello there! Apologies for my absence – I’ve moved house, moved PhD (transferred to Bristol in order to follow my lovely supervisor), and started a new job – so it’s been an extraordinarily busy and exciting start to 2015! As well as a final year PhD student, I’m also now a Research Associate at UCL, working on a really exciting two-year AHRC-funding project called The Academic Book of the Future – perfectly balancing my interests in the book between the past, present, and future! This post introduces the Project that I’m working on. It originally appeared on LSE’s Impact Blog, and is reproduced here with their kind permission.

What does the future hold for academic books? Rebecca Lyons introduces The Academic Book of the Future, a two-year project funded by the AHRC in collaboration with the British Library in which a cross-disciplinary team from University College London and King’s College London explores how scholarly work in the Arts and Humanities will be produced, read, shared, and preserved in coming years, and investigates key questions around the changing state and modern contexts of the academic book.

  • What is an academic book?
  • Who reads them?
  • What can technology do to help make academic books more accessible?
  • How can we make sure academic books, whether print or electronic, are kept safe, and preserved effectively?

Some of these questions – for instance “what is an academic book?” or “who reads them?” appear deceptively simple. However, the academic book is changing – contexts and readers even more so – and therefore these questions have potentially very complex outcomes. As with all the best research questions, they also suggest a huge network of other sub-questions, some of which this two-year project will be addressing in the hopes of finding some answers.

Anyone who uses academic books will have noticed a change (or several) in recent years in the terrain. There is the obvious expansion in the range of available formats, from traditional hardback and paperback books, to the wide world of digital, including epub, HTML, pdf, and so on. These developments, aligned with others in technology, have had a bearing on the ways in which we physically read academic books and the devices we use to access them, from tablets to laptops, pcs to e-readers, and of course not forgetting the humble hard-copy or print-out.

book of futureImage credit: Electronic Book by Tim Noko (Flickr, CC BY-SA)

 

Consequently, our acts of academic reading have changed. As Andrew Prescott highlights: we can now download academic biographies of long-dead monarchs whilst ‘trundling through the West Wales countryside’ on a bus. Not only this, but with an increasingly urgent and complex set of demands on academics’ time, including admin, research, writing, teaching, and putting together funding bids, the style and level of academic reading itself may have also changed. Geoff Crossick suggests, in his recent HEFCE Monographs and Open Access Project report:

It is felt by many that today’s scholars lack the time to read books thoroughly, and it is feared that the academic skill of ‘deep reading’ may become, or have already become, devalued or lost. The emergence of new technologies for information production and retrieval, the ability readily to download book chapters and journal articles, and changing societal expectations around information being readily and instantaneously available, might be compounding these fears that the monograph, and the academic practices that surround it, are becoming an unloved relic of a bygone age. (p. 22)

The transition into the digital age has also brought with it some pressing questions about the traditional shape, size, and format of academic books. With more and more research taking an interdisciplinary, digitised, and innovative approach, new outputs are being produced by researchers which increasingly trouble the traditional the boundaries and definitions of the traditional arts and humanities monograph. Where, for instance, do blogs fit in? – and more importantly, how are they credited and recognised by the academy – if at all? Michael Piotrowski considers books vs blogs in terms of academic prestige in a previous post on this blog, and in doing so also touches upon some other topical issues with a huge bearing on the academic book in modern academia, namely impact and recognition. In a post-REF world where impact is king, and where departments and researchers are measured by the amount of research they can publish, how are non-traditional outputs weighed and measured in the Arts and Humanities? And what about non-traditional publication methods, such as open access?

It should be obvious from this incredibly brief introduction alone that academic books and their contexts have changed, and are still changing, dramatically. We are barely scratching the surface here. How are libraries and publishers working in these changing modern contexts? What’s happening with academic books in the global south? What about non-English academic books? The Academic Book of the Future Project aims to bring researchers, publishers, librarians, booksellers, and everyone with a stake in the academic book into dialogue with each other in order to get to grips with some of these issues, and to help inform forward steps (including REF 2026). The Project is, at its core, an investigative conversation that uses a wide range of mini-projects and events to prompt meaningful discussion.

The pinnacle of the Project’s activity for 2015 is Academic Book Week (9-16 November 2015). #AcBookWeek is a week-long series of events taking place across the UK and internationally to celebrate the diversity, innovation and influence of academic books, culminating in an Awards Ceremony at the British Library. If you are in any way involved with academic books – whether it is writing them, producing them, selling them, or reading them – we invite you to get involved with this week, and with the wider Project, too. Join in the conversation, and help us to identify – and even shape – the academic book of the future.

Email the Project: Rebecca.lyons@ucl.ac.uk
Tweet the Project: @AcBookFuture
Follow the Project blog: http://academicbookfuture.org/blog/
Project website: http://academicbookfuture.org/

Note: This article gives the views of the author, and not the position of the Impact of Social Science blog, nor of the London School of Economics.

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Interview: Arthurian Literature and Legend, Postgraduate Studies, Career Advice

When Georgie Norgate, one of my lovely undergraduate students, approached me to ask if she could interview me for a new student radio show she was starting up, I was flattered. 

Actually I experienced a whole range of involuntary reactions in quick succession, from horror (I HATE my voice); to curiosity (what’s it like being on the radio?); to fear (what if I say something stupid and it’s out there FOREVER?), to egotistical smugness (she thinks I’m interesting, how lovely!).

In the spirit of harvesting as many experiences as possible in life, I agreed.

And as it turns out, I DID say something stupid – I had an incredibly scatty moment about Geoffrey of Monmouth and obliterated Guinevere’s presence from his Historia Regum Britanniae entirely! Oops.

But apart from that blunder, and a bit of nervous giggling, the interview was actually a lot of fun! It was a great learning experience – better to make these mistakes now, than with Melvyn Bragg in a few years, eh? (There’s the egotism again!) It’s not the most polished or sophisticated of pieces (Georgie was fantastic – it was her guest who kept wandering off topic!), but I’m really glad I said yes.

We discussed Arthurian literature and legend – from the idea of a historical Arthur to later romance – and considered the enduring popularity of the legend into modern film and television adaptations. Georgie was also very interested in my unorthodox route to a PhD alongside a career in publishing and web editing, and asked about careers for English graduates. I was only too happy to share my story and impart some advice and encouragement to the next generation of undergraduates.

So, here’s my interview in all its glory on the University of York Radio website:

What’s that Topic? – with Rebecca Lyons:

http://ury.org.uk/uryplayer/podcasts/1019/

Each interview in the ‘What’s That Topic?’ series will be with a different subject area specialist. Do keep an ear out for the next one!

And if you have any tips for speaking on the radio – please do share in the comments below!

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Filed under King Arthur, PhD, The Arthurian Legend, The Arthurian Tradition

Suffolk: A Medievalist’s Paradise

The end of last year was a whirligig of activity, with teaching, freelance web-editing, and thesisising all featuring heavily on the agenda. Plus a pinch of socialising, of course. Thankfully this year has already started to bear the fruits of my endeavours – including an exciting new job! But more on that another time. So whilst I’m wrapping up my freelance work and preparing for a new role, I have a moment to reminisce and finally write a post about a holiday I took with my mum last September (I really have been that busy!). Join us on a tour of medieval Suffolk via some of its key monuments and locations – it is a fantastic place to visit if you’re interested in the Middle Ages, and here are just a few reasons why…

map of Suffolk

Suffolk

Suffolk has an undeniably rich and impressive history. Its location on the south-east of England and the continental connections that this location afforded – first for Anglo-Saxon settlement and later for wool trading – as well as its proximity to London, ensured the continued importance of this area throughout the Middle Ages. Its extensive and prestigious history can still be seen in the monuments and coastline of this picturesque county.

Orford Castle

Orford Castle

Orford castle’s dramatic keep

A striking figure bounded by sea, gentle green countryside, the quaint village of Orford, and shimmering Orford Ness – all that remains of twelfth-century Orford Castle is its impressive keep. Built in the 1160s-70s by King Henry II of England, the castle served as a reminder to the rich and occasionally troublesome nobles of Suffolk and Norfolk of royal power and authority – particularly those pesky Bigods. According to English Heritage the castle cost £1,413 to build, and as the entire royal revenues were less than £10,000 a year, this is a testament to the importance of the project. The keep is visible for miles around. Big Brother was definitely watching the Bigods.

View from the top of the keep over Orford Ness

View from the top of the keep over Orford Ness

The round keep comprises several levels – a lower hall and upper hall encircled by several rooms and private chambers, as well as a cellar and a roof. It was a multi-purpose building – defensive and governmental, along with serving the requirements of an itinerant king and court.

Orford castle keep floor plan

Orford castle floor plan – From English Heritage’s Orford Castle Teacher’s Kit. Copyright © 2000 English Heritage. Revised 2002, 2008. Image © English Heritage Photo Library

If the outside of the keep and its now lost castle were intended as a display of royal power and authority, the inside echoes and recreates the hierarchical ideals of twelfth-century England on an architectural scale. Each level served a different purpose, and was intended to be used and accessed by a different set of guest or resident – the lower hall was probably a court or council room, and stone seating runs around the circumference of the room. The upper hall was intended for grander use, including the king’s visits, and has its own small side kitchen for preparing food and keeping it warm.

Lower hall fireplace of Orford castle's keep

Lower hall fireplace of Orford castle’s keep

The fireplace on one side of the round entrance hall provided heat to all the chambers behind and above it, running along its length up that side of the building – these would have been occupied by important figures such as the king, queen, and constable, and are incredibly cosy, with small windows and thick walls to protect inhabitants from weather, and any attacks. There is also a small chapel where Anglo-Norman decorative stone-carving is still visible, complete with a listening hole for people outside in the hall to also hear services. The roof houses a bakery – the ovens with their original medieval tiling are still extant – whilst the cellar has a well and space for food storage. Everything has been considered for comfort and convenience – the constable’s room even has a personal urinal in the wall just outside his door!

The constable’s urinal - Orford castle keep

The constable’s urinal – Orford castle keep

It really is a wonderful, characterful building, and with its extraordinarily clever and compact design and gorgeous surviving original features, it makes for a wonderful afternoon of exploration. Every time I visit I like to imagine Henry sitting in court, with his notoriously terrible wine and ordinary clothes, and Eleanor his queen beside him, in all her Aquitanian finery, enjoying this remarkable space.

See the English Heritage website for details on how to visit Orford Castle: http://www.english-heritage.org.uk/daysout/properties/orford-castle/

Framlingham Castle

Approaching Framlingham castle’s front gate

Approaching Framlingham castle’s front gate

Travel inland from the coast, head north-west towards the Suffolk-Norfolk border, and you’ll reach Framlingham castle. Built by the Bigod earls that Henry II was so concerned with keeping under control, the castle passed back and forth between Bigods and Crown in the wake of revolts against the king, and subsequent changes in monarch. Framlingham is a very different structure to Orford in the sense of what was originally constructed, as well as what has been left behind.

Internal view of Framlingham castle

Internal view of Framlingham castle – note the Tudor chimneys on each turret!

The castle had no keep, but a thick curtain wall protected the inner courtyard and its buildings, including a hall and chapel. The castle was surrounded by the Great Park – used for hunting and recreation – and lakes, which were added in the later Middle Ages. In 1476 the castle passed to the Howards. It remained an actively used building through the Tudor period, and it was the Howards who modernised parts of the castle and added the highly ornate chimneys that were so fashionable during the sixteenth century, and which characterise the castle so dramatically today. When Mary Tudor seized power in 1553, she did so from Framlingham Castle.

One of the Tudor chimneys at Framlingham

One of the Tudor chimneys at Framlingham

In the seventeenth century the castle was left to Pembroke College, Cambridge, and a poorhouse was built within its walls (below). The best way to see Framlingham Castle is by walking around the top of these curtain walls, and English Heritage provide an excellent audio guide which even highlights holes in the stones of the crenelated battlements where shutters could be lifted to fire arrows.

View of the poorhouse from Framlingham castle walls

View of the poorhouse from Framlingham castle walls

See the English Heritage website for details on how to visit Framlingham Castle: http://www.english-heritage.org.uk/daysout/properties/framlingham-castle/

St. Michael’s Church, Framlingham

St Michael’s Church, Framlingham

St Michael’s Church, Framlingham

Framlingham’s church is also worth paying a visit. It has undergone several phases of development and redevelopment, from the twelfth century (the capitals of the chancel arch date from this point), to the late nineteenth-century renovations that uncovered fifteenth-century murals on the walls.

The interior of St Michael’s Church

The interior of St Michael’s Church

The ceiling is particularly impressive, dating from about 1521, with intricate fan tracery, concealing hammer beams. It feels like standing in the hull of a vast ship.

The church ceiling

The church ceiling

The church also has an interesting collection of tombs. They include those of the Earl of Surrey and his wife, Frances de Vere, as well as two of the wives of Thomas, 4th Duke of Norfolk. But my favourite is that of Henry FitzRoy, Duke of Richmond and Somerset , the illegitimate son of Henry VIII, and his mistress Elizabeth Blount – one of Katherine of Aragon’s ladies-in-waiting. By all accounts, Fitzroy was a fine young man of whom Henry was inordinately proud – especially as he was his only son except Edward to survive infancy. However, he died of consumption when he was only 17.

The tomb of Henry Fitzroy – Henry VIII’s illegitimate son

The tomb of Henry Fitzroy – Henry VIII’s illegitimate son

For information on the church’s history and how to visit, see the website: http://stmichaelschurch.onesuffolk.net/welcome-to-st-michael-s-framlingham-website/

Leiston Abbey

Leiston Abbey

Leiston Abbey

Easily missed, tucked away down little lanes in the Suffolk countryside, are the ruins of Leiston Abbey. An abbey of Premonstratensian canons, it was moved, stone by stone, from its initial swampy location elsewhere in Suffolk in the fourteenth century to its current location – meaning that the newer fourteenth-century structure also contained elements of the original Anglo-Norman structure.

Colourful stones in the walls of Leiston Abbey

Colourful stones in the walls of Leiston Abbey

The ruins make for a pleasant hour or so of exploration. Its remote location means that, despite the pleasant day, we were the only visitors. Having a whole abbey to yourself is a peaceful experience, and many of the original structures remain, including a refectory, abbey church, and cloister.

Rambling around the ruins

Rambling around the ruins

See the English Heritage website for details on how to visit Leiston Abbey (entry free): http://www.english-heritage.org.uk/daysout/properties/leiston-abbey/

Aldeburgh Moot Hall

Aldeburgh Moot Hall

Aldeburgh Moot Hall

My mum and I stayed in Aldeburgh during our visit to Suffolk, using it as a base for our medieval explorations. It really is a wonderful little place – great pubs and restaurants, quaint boutique shops, an extensive seafront, and a sixteenth-century hall. The Moot Hall – which wasn’t called this until much later – was a central building used for several purposes – prison, town hall, council chamber, market centre. It now houses the Aldeburgh Museum, which tells the story of the hall, the town, and the local region. Amongst the tales are those of seven unfortunate ‘witches’ imprisoned in the hall. The Museum’s website offers a chilling glimpse of the witchfinding hysteria that swept through East Anglia during the seventeenth century:

“Matthew Hopkins, self-styled Witch Finder General, and widow Phillips, his search woman, were employed by the Burgesses to find out witches in Aldeburgh. Seven women were incarcerated in the Moot Hall’s prison in the middle of one of the coldest winters on record. They were prevented from sleeping and watched for proof of their guilt – that is for the coming of their familiar spirits. Eventually, cold, hungry and exhausted, they must have confessed. They were all hanged in February 1646.”

The walls of the Moot Hall

The walls of the Moot Hall

The hall now stands in fairly close proximity to the beach, with no buildings between it and the sea. This wasn’t always the case. The map below shows the hall – the red-coloured structure – in 1594 in the centre of the town, with two sets of buildings quite securely wedged between it and the sea.

The Moot Hall in 1594 – Credit: http://www.aldeburghmuseumonline.co.uk/

The Moot Hall in 1594 – Credit: http://www.aldeburghmuseumonline.co.uk/

The Moot Hall houses Aldeburgh Museum, which is open to the public. See the website for details: http://www.aldeburghmuseumonline.co.uk

Lost places and the sea

The Moot Hall’s perilous position by the ever-encroaching sea is emblematic of the story that has been playing out along the Suffolk coastline for centuries. Harbours silt up and move – such as the one at Orford Ness – and villages and towns change, and even disappear.

The retreating coastline of Dunwich – Credit http://www.aldeburghmuseumonline.co.uk/

The retreating coastline of Dunwich – Credit http://www.aldeburghmuseumonline.co.uk/

Aldeburgh owes its earlier affluence to this process. The harbour town of Dunwich, pictured above, was a wealthy, prestigious settlement – the capital of the kingdom of the East Angles in the Anglo-Saxon period, and in the High Middle Ages it was an international port. But repeated storms silted up its harbour, and opened one up near Aldeburgh. As you can see in the image above, the sea has attacked Dunwich aggressively since the Middle Ages – leaving little of the town uncovered by water. There is still a small town there, more like a village really, but very little remains of the medieval grandeur of this settlement.

Other places like Slaughden, a village just along the coast from Aldeburgh, have disappeared completely. The last resident was born there in 1922 and the sea swept it away completely in the 1950s. You can read an interview with this last resident here: https://holdingbackthetide.wordpress.com/2008/12/05/the-last-child-of-slaughden-interview/. There’s something very haunting about these sunken towns. There is a myth that in Dunwich, as in many other lost places in the British Isles, church bells can be heard ringing beneath the waves on stormy nights.

These are just some of the places that we managed to squeeze into one week – but there are so many other sites in Suffolk to entice medievalists, including Ipswich, Sutton Hoo, and a plethora of medieval churches and monuments. Visit this year – you won’t regret it!

The Lyonesses by Orford Ness

The Lyonesses by Orford Ness

Further Reading and Links

Mark Bailey. Medieval Suffolk: An Economic and Social History, 1200-1500. Woodbridge: Boydell Press, 2007.

Orford Castle: http://www.english-heritage.org.uk/daysout/properties/orford-castle/

Framlingham Castle: http://www.english-heritage.org.uk/daysout/properties/framlingham-castle/

St. Michael’s Church, Framlingham: http://stmichaelschurch.onesuffolk.net/welcome-to-st-michael-s-framlingham-website/

Leiston Abbey: http://www.english-heritage.org.uk/daysout/properties/leiston-abbey/

Aldeburgh Moot Hall: http://www.aldeburghmuseumonline.co.uk

Note: Unless stated otherwise, all photos on this blog post are my own and should be credited Rebecca Lyons.

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Halfway There…

A year-and-a-half after upping sticks from London to York to start a PhD, I’m now halfway (at least theoretically!) through my three-year programme. This moment seems like a good time to take stock, look back over the past 18 months, and see what has changed since I last wrote about my experiences at the 6 month mark. (Spoiler: A LOT has changed.)

Where to begin…

Let’s start with the PhD. Firstly, it’s been so much more than the thesis. SO MUCH MORE. Doors have been opened to me as a PhD student that I could never have dreamed of. I had my first experience of teaching undergraduates at the university this spring term (Jan-April 2014) on a High Medieval Literature module, and whilst there was some Arthurian content (hooray!), there were also texts that I wasn’t hugely familiar with (Orkeyinga Saga, for example). So whilst preparation for classes took a long time, and I was quite terrified before my first lesson (on the Chanson de Roland) it was hugely rewarding. I COULD answer lots of their questions. I realised I actually know some stuff. Which, as other PhD students will agree, is a feeling that doesn’t happen too often. That old chestnut ‘the more you know, the more you realise you don’t know’ certainly applies. And teaching is so exhilarating! It’s fun to be challenged, and to view texts in new, fresh ways through the eyes of your students. I was very lucky and had an absolutely wonderful class of third years who made teaching a pleasure. I’ve just been allocated teaching for the next academic year, and this time it’s first years – bring it on!

There have also been conferences. I’ve been to two or three a year since I started my PhD, and I have concluded that attending conferences is a fantastic way to make friends in your area of study. Conferences are so much more than speakers and panels – lots of my best ‘networking’ (I hate that word) has been done in the evenings, over a relaxed pint of ale, chatting to some of the brightest minds and loveliest people in my field. Plus speaking at conferences yourself is wonderful. Like teaching, it can be terrifying, and exhilarating, and ultimately – if you’re fortunate – rewarding. Receiving good feedback from respected academics on your paper and topic is one of those lovely moments of validation that come every now and then during a PhD. Having colleagues become close friends is another, and for me it’s the ideal way to work – in a network, or community, of supportive like-minds. Conferences are also a good way to stamp your mark on a certain area of scholarship and say ‘This is mine. I am the person to contact on this specific area. Please associate this area of study with me from now on.’ Marking your academic territory, as it were.

My thesis itself is slowly but surely finding its way into being. It isn’t the same now as when I started. And this is completely normal. The scope of my thesis has naturally evolved and refined and focused, but the biggest change (on paper) is that I’m no longer doing an ‘officially’ interdisciplinary PhD in Medieval Studies, but have shifted over to the Department of English and Related Studies, so that my PhD is now technically just in literature. My thesis is still inherently interdisciplinary due to the very nature of its very subject (Arthurian literature owned by women in the fifteenth century), but for me literature – the department, the approach, the people – just makes for a better fit than history. This is where being self-funded came in handy. I was able to move across to the English department with no muss, no fuss. Not everyone has that freedom, and I’m lucky to have been able to follow my instinct in this case, and now am as happy as can be in York’s very welcoming English department.

Progress on a thesis is difficult to gauge, and I’m never quite sure what the honest answer is when people ask how it’s going. (As a side note, I’m not one of those people who resents being asked about their research, so feel free!). My thesis is structured into four chapters (plus an introduction and conclusion), and I’m currently finishing off the second chapter. So I guess I’m sort of on track at the halfway mark. However, having said that, I re-read my first chapter last week and realised it needs to be completely re-written. It’s awful! I can really see the development of my scholarly voice from one chapter to the next. But that in itself is progress, so I suppose it’s a good thing really.

Money. One of the things that kept me awake for the first time ever during the last eighteen months was money. I lay awake wondering how I’d get enough of it to pay for fees, rent, food, and still have enough left to do at least some of the other fun things I want to do. But it turns out there’s always money to be made if you’re enterprising and put yourself out there, and if you’re really lucky (or savvy!), you can combine money-making with academic CV-building.

My professional experience as a web editor has come in super handy. I was keen to start editing websites that spoke more to my personal interests, so when a voluntary position presented itself to work on the International Arthurian Society’s new website, I didn’t hesitate. And it’s been brilliant! I was already a member of the Society, and this has been a great way to get to know the other members, and for them to have an awareness of who I am, too. It has also led to lots of other opportunities in terms of paid web editing work for other interesting academic websites, and I’ve been working as the sort of ‘on call’ web editor for both the English department and Centre for Medieval Studies at the university, as well as working for the library on some of their online stuff. The great thing about this is that I can do it mostly in my own time, from my own laptop, wherever I am – ideal when you’re a student.

The crossing over of my professional and academic interests also inspired me to incorporate a Digital Humanities aspect to my thesis. This killed many birds with one stone  – enabling me to develop my web skills; get the most out of my thesis; keep myself interested (very important when you’re studying something for three years!); but it will also hopefully help in terms of employability at the end of it all. It never hurts to have more than one string to your bow!

With the help of the fantastic Tom Smith (Collaborative Software Specialist at the University of York) I set up create a crowdsourcing website to produce an online transcription and translation of the never-before-edited Chanson d’Ogier (the text discussed in my first chapter) from its original manuscript context in BL Royal MS 15 E VI. Medievalists from all over the world can contribute a translation and/or transcription, and it is my hope that eventually we’ll end up with a full online edition and translation, freely accessible to all, so that more people can become aware of (and hopefully study) this fascinating text. Here’s the link to the website:

https://sites.google.com/a/york.ac.uk/ogier-the-dane/

Please do contribute to the site and share the link widely, because many hands make light work!

The one thing I have had to do is start saying no. I have been so incredibly lucky with the opportunities that have come along in the past year and a half. Besides teaching, web editing, and speaking at conferences, I’ve also been a bibliographer for Encomia: The Bibliographical Bulletin of the International Courtly Literature Society and had book reviews published in peer-reviewed journals. Luckily for me, lovely things like this have been part and parcel of my PhD experience. However, I’ve realised that at this point, halfway through, it’s important for me to focus on the thesis above all else, and difficult as it is, I’ve had to start saying no to some things.

Aside from PhD stuff, my personal life has seen more highs and lows than ever before. Last September my relationship of seven years came to an end. It was not mutual, and I was very sad and felt very lost for a long time afterwards. It affected my PhD. Try as I might, for about a month after it happened I just couldn’t read anything. I mean, I could read, but something happened to the words before they reached my brain, and I just couldn’t process them. This made research difficult. The other effect it had was to compound the huge voyage of self-discovery I was already on, to find out who this person is in her late twenties, suddenly single and with no stable career. Everything had changed, basically, and I had to try to make sense of it all. I won’t say it’s been easy, but a year on and I’m battle-scarred, but with a new-found empathy for other survivors of life’s unexpected twists and turns. Life can be brutal at times, but it can also be conquered – all you need is fortitude, just the right amount of your chosen vice (whiskey for me), country music, and a fantastic support network. One thing I’ve learned is that you need to be kind to yourself. If you can’t work, then don’t force it. Taking time out for your emotional and mental health is more important, always. The research will still be there when you’re ready.

I’ll skip over the occasionally hilarious, frequently cringeworthy, and often downright depressing aspects of dating in your late twenties – that’s another blog post entirely. Instead I’ll skip to the bit where I’ve met someone amazing (another survivor!), and we’re happy together. One effect of the events of last year is that I don’t feel I can state, with any certainty, what the future holds – but I do know that right now, in this moment, I’m happy. All is well (touch wood!), and I’m very surprised by, and grateful for that.

So. There you have it. That’s what being halfway through a PhD looks like – for me, at least. The past 18 months has been such a rollercoaster. There have been highs. There have been lows. There have been moments where I’m really not sure whether I’m coming or going, or who I really am anymore, but I’m sure of one thing: I wouldn’t have it any other way, and I’m still so incredibly glad to be on this amazing adventure.

On holiday this week in Suffolk, enjoying the audio tour at Framlingham Castle

On holiday this week in Suffolk, enjoying the audio tour at Framlingham Castle

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Interview with Lavinia Collins, author of The Warrior Queen

Lavinia Collins is the author of The Warrior Queen, part one of a new Arthurian trilogy. This post, an interview with Collins, is the second of two exploring this new work.

As a medievalist, Lavinia, you must have a keen awareness of not only the medieval stories of Arthur, but also of the countless modern adaptations in literature, art and film. So what motivated you to write your own take on these timeless tales? What does your trilogy do differently to everything that has come before, and which writers/tales would you say have inspired your version the most?

Hmmm, what a good question! There are several aspects to what motivated me to write. I really loved all the medieval versions, and I wanted to be able to share them, and a least a small part of some of the stories they contain, with a wider audience, but especially in a way that would make it immediate, and recuperate a point of view that I felt had been largely missed; that of Guinevere. A large part of it was also just to please myself. I really enjoyed getting lost in the Arthurian world as I understood it, and I really wanted to share that with other people.

I felt, also, that the way that we come into contact with it now is quite sanitised. Especially, actually, the relationships between the characters. I think we like to believe that people in legend didn’t get caught up with silly, worldly things like sexual desire, and I felt like there was room for something more raw, more immediate, and more personal from the point of view of Guinevere, something that didn’t try to excuse her of any responsibility by making her passive, or gloss over any of the problematic elements of her character which have resulted in so many versions polarising her into either a lusty shrew or a doe-eyed moron.

One of my great inspirations in terms of modern adaptations was Marion Zimmer Bradley’s Mists of Avalon, which I love, but which I always felt was slightly wanting in its depiction of Guinevere. Bradley did great work in the recuperation of Morgan le Fay, but this was almost at the expense of Guinevere (which I will talk a bit more about later on), and that left me wondering if there wasn’t another story to be told there, that had been lost a little; in feminism’s desire to redeem the witch, we had forgotten the woman at the centre, who has been variously condemned and marginalised in different ways.

I felt like there were a lot of adaptations for children, and then Marion Zimmer Bradley (who I will talk quite a lot about, and my conflicted feelings about her adaptation, which I love, but which I feel didn’t do an awful lot of good for our idea of Guinevere) who did an incredible job of recuperating Morgan le Fay’s point of view, and quite a lot of film and TV which focussed heavily on the men and marginalised the women or stereotyped them. Mainly, it was that the fascinating, powerful Guinevere that I read in the medieval version didn’t seem to me to be represented in any satisfying way in any of the adaptations I had come across, and it was high time someone got on to it!

 

Guinevere, in all her capricious complexity, has always been one of my favourite characters of the Arthurian world. What made you choose her as your protagonist, and why did you depict her in this particular way?

A large part of it had to do with what a raw deal I thought Guinevere was getting in all the modern adaptations of Arthurian legend. It just seemed that this immense, powerful personality that is so clear in Malory’s book, and to an extent in Chrétien de Troyes was constantly being reduced to something more “tasteful” and therefore less individual, less interesting and ultimately less good. I suppose it’s partly to do with squeamish Victorian moralising (thank you for that, Tennyson) and the mistaken belief of film and tv executives that we can only like a woman that we think is “good”. I found the whole way she was dealt with in every adaptation rather disappointing compared to what I imagined when I read Malory. Even the Mists of Avalon (which I absolutely love) somehow cannot manage to present both Morgaine and Gwenhwyfar in a positive light, which is very frustrating, and ends with her making Gwenwhyfar into a hysterical, agoraphobic religious fundamentalist without charm or interest or power. I thought that this was such a shame.

I am sure so much of the paring down of Guinevere’s character in modern treatments comes from a kind of prudish, judgemental need to “justify” the affair with Lancelot. The most annoying manifestation of this is versions that suggest that she was already in love with Lancelot when she married Arthur. I’m not saying this isn’t valid, I suppose what I am saying is that it isn’t interesting. It’s just apologism. People feel the need to say “she did what she did because of x,y,z,” or they, like Bradley, make her passive and weak in the face of something or other.

But in Chrétien de Troyes and Malory she certainly doesn’t seem weak or passive — and besides, this isn’t interesting. It’s symptomatic of a need to put women into this box, or that box. A tragic heroine, an unfaithful wife. I was sick of reading and seeing her depicted as a victim, as passive. Certainly, as a woman that’s not very interesting to watch or read. I hated the idea that we can only like Guinevere if we feel sorry for her, and I felt like what I read and saw in modern adaptations never matched up to what I read in the medieval versions. I strongly felt that her story was one that had not be properly told, at least not in a way that I thought did any justice to the powerful character I read in Malory’s and Chretien’s texts.

 

In your take on the Arthurian legends, Guinevere is shown to have a close and deeply personal relationship with the Round Table, and both she and the physical object (as well as some of the other characters in the novel) possess a sort of Otherworldly, Celtic-inspired magic. Can you talk a little about your decision here?

People know the “Round Table” as one thing, and on a popular level most people only know that it was the table that Arthur’s knights sat around, and have no idea that it originally belonged to Guinevere. I wanted to reimagine this object which itself has come to be metonymic of a certain type of male comradeship from a different perspective, to imagine it meaning something personal to the woman to whom it originally belonged, and to suggest that both our idea and Arthur’s idea of the significance of the table isn’t its whole story. I also wanted to include some medieval-romance-style magical objects that weren’t just the typical ones dwelt on by other versions (Excalibur has some “Otherworldly” elements, but it’s certainly not given the same narrative weight in my version as in the movie Excalibur, for example). The table kind of became a symbol, a focal point that illustrated for me the idea that in the past we have perhaps approached these events from a kind of Christianised, male-centric position, and I wanted to show how how something as central to the Arthurian knights as the Round Table could have meant something so different to Guinevere.

In terms of my decision to emphasise the Celtic “Otherworldly” elements, really it’s just that these personally attracted me to the legends. I have never enjoyed versions which strip away the magic and try to get too historical, and I felt as though the Celtic versions have their own particular character and flavour. It’s simpler than magic too; it’s a connection to the land, to others like oneself, to the places of home. It also helped me to create the sense that I wanted of various conflicting worlds that can never quite match up with one another; the Breton culture that Guinevere grows up with, and British culture in Logrys; the desire to conquer and the longing for peace; safety and being trapped; loyalty and desire. It just became an integral part of that, the conflict between different ways of seeing and understanding the world.

 

Gender roles, and cultural differences between masculine- and feminine-appropriate dress and behaviour, serve to create an interesting tension within the book. Logrys (Britain) is shown to have a much more rigidly masculine/feminine divide, whereas the line between genders is more blurred in the Breton world of Carhais. Guinevere must negotiate the differences between these two worlds and their norms. Guinevere’s challenges in adapting to her new surroundings as a foreign princess (in other texts she’s variously depicted as being of Roman or Welsh descent) are rarely depicted, let alone in terms of gender differences. What were your reasons behind both the differences in cultural gender norms, and in showing Guinevere’s struggle to assimilate into her new culture?

There were several reasons for this. Firstly, I have to confess that my imagining of Breton culture is largely extrapolated from my study of early medieval Irish Celtic culture and the evidence that survives of a society in which women were able to (even if they did not usually) take on warrior-roles. This is part of the reason that I chose to link Guinevere with Medb (who I spelled in a more non-medievalist friendly way in the novel!) from the Tan Bo Cualinge, because I wanted to create a sense that Guinevere belonged to an culture that both had ancient roots and that was on its way our as Arthur’s new world was beginning to conquer the lands around it. I felt like the relationship between Arthur and Guinevere has typically been portrayed in very simple terms as a kind of political marriage that neither were very emotionally invested in. I didn’t think that this was very interesting, and I felt that the story of love across conflicting cultures, and a more complex relationship between them would be much more interesting, for me at least!

But aside from this is also part of a deeply personal interest in this element of the story. We know how common it was for queen to be married outside of their home countries into foreign courts where the language and customs were strange, and yet this is something which, as you say, is rarely discussed in Guinevere’s case at all. I thought to gloss over the experience of finding oneself almost alone in a foreign place and expect to marry a stranger was a part of the medieval female experience that I wanted to deal with.

Gender was also something that I wanted to deal with more generally in the book. I was tired of film and TV versions where Arthur is wet and weak. My decision to have Arthur as this incredible alpha male and Lancelot as more shy, more sensitive, less typically masculine is partly based on my own reading of Malory, but partly based in my own interest in the limits that this expectation of extreme masculinity places on the men of medieval society. I wanted to create something that asked interesting questions about the gender roles at play, and that also acknowledged that this was a question that people were asking themselves in the Middle Ages –there’s a general idea that they all just accepted the status quo, but if that were true, there would be no Wife of Bath’s Tale, would there?

 

As a fellow medievalist I’m interested in the world you’ve created in your retelling, which takes so much from the medieval corpus, but also nods to post-medieval Arthuriana in its depiction of a bow-wielding princess. Like all the best retellings (in my opinion!) of the Arthurian legends, the temporal setting is not a faithful rendering of any specific historical moment. Can you talk a little about the world of the Warrior Queen?

I certainly wanted to create something that wasn’t slavish to any particular time. I always feel let down by versions that as desperate to locate it in a particular time. That was why I found that King Arthur film so boring, and actually that was one of those things that annoyed me about my favourite modern version The Mists of Avalon; both laboured a historical moment, and if anything the stretch for historical credibility makes it less believable. It’s as though the more you try to explain, the more the gaps show.

What I wanted to create was something not that was like a historical time, but that was like a medieval text. Obviously, it’s in modern English, and there’s quite a lot of racy material that wouldn’t have made it past a monastic scriptorium, but I did want to create the sense of a mythical medieval past. There are some elements, like magic, which I took inspiration from the medieval romance tradition. (I’m afraid that there are also some nerdy medievalist jokes hidden in there, for anyone who can spot them…) That said, there are some elements that just don’t translate across time, and I really wanted to create a world, and a Guinevere with whom a modern audience could engage, and I hope that I have done so.

 

You do particularly interesting things with Kay. Worlds apart from the mean ginger clod of Disney’s Sword and the Stone, your Kay is a dark-haired, fay-like knight who, in keeping with his role as seneschal seems to see all. You dedicate your novel to your own Kay –what made you choose to present Kay in this way? Is there a real-life inspiration for your portrayal of this often awkward and maligned character?

Poor Kay! I am always upset by the treatment my all time favourite Athurian knight gets. Even in serious academic Arthurian criticism, I have come across unfounded Kay-bashing. One even suggested that, in the episode where Lancelot steals Kay’s armour after what can only be described as at the very least a homoerotic sleepover and rides about dressed as him being excellent at fighting, that this was done because Kay was ‘the weakest link’ in the chain of Arthurian knights and needed a reputation boost! Hardly fair on the knight who single-handedly kills two of the kings in the war with the five kings…!

Kay –and especially Malory’s Kay –seems to me like the only knight who knows how to have fun, and he is always unfairly sidelined in modern adaptations. It is almost as though adapters think that Arthur can only have one friend, and will get confused if he has any more buddies than Lancelot. Every single film and TV version I’ve seen make Kay a sort of meanie older brother who Arthur immediately forgets, when this is far from the case in the medieval versions. Arthur explicitly says that his desire to kill the Emperor Lucius is the result of Kay’s wounding in battle, and the moment that Arthur pulls the sword from the stone in Malory is followed by his intensely poignant question to Ector, “So you are not my father, and Kay is not my brother?” and yet Kay is erased from almost every adaptation, except in the episode at the beginning when he forgets his sword. I thought it presented an interesting relationship to explore, that of the foster brothers.

As a court-bound seneschal, it seemed to me that he was a fitting friend for Guinevere, who, as a woman, is also bound to stay within the castle while the other knights go journeying about. The decision to incorporate a kind of “Otherworldly” nature to Kay was based on the Welsh versions of Arthurian legend, where in ‘The Lady of the Fountain’, I think, that Kay has some supernatural skills, and I thought this combined well with how I wanted to use the Otherworldly elements.

But more than anything, the fact that Kay has been chronically ignored in adaptations gave me a lot of room to do what I liked with him, to explore elements that hadn’t been explored, which included the domestic life of Camelot, the relationship between the foster-brothers and the conflict of the old ways of the Otherworld and pagans with the new Christian world ruled from Camelot at its centre. I’ve been surprised, too, (and pleased, of course) to the widespread positive reaction to my depiction of Kay; it seems that people were as interested in Camelot’s untold stories as I am.

As for my own Kay, well that would really be telling, wouldn’t it? My own Kay is someone without whom I could never have written The Guinevere Trilogy, and who is a huge part of my life. Apart from that, I’m afraid I’m going to keep the rest to myself. A girl’s got to maintain a little mystery, eh?

 

Finally: why does the world still need Arthur, after an existence in nearly a thousand years of myth and legend? What purpose do you think these characters and their stories serve in our modern world?

 

Ah, that’s the million-pound question for all medievalists, isn’t it? I think Arthurian legend is part of the fabric of British identity, and we will always need it. Obviously, I wouldn’t be interested in medieval literature if I didn’t think this, but I do strongly believe that we can learn so much from the stories that we tell about ourselves (so perhaps you can learn a lot about me from what I have decided to tell!) and that it will always be important both to read what is old, and to remake it so that it fits within our own modern understanding.

I love all the medieval versions of Arthurian legend, and I could never hope to replicate some of the great works of the Middle Ages, but equally since they are in Middle English, or Old French or Latin, these are lost to the vast majority of people looking for a good read. But they are a good read, and I felt that it was really important to create a version that was entertaining, but that also communicated what I wanted to convey from my own understanding of these medieval texts in a way that would be immediate, accessible and engaging for a modern audience. It would be such a shame if these stories were lost, or if they only survived on a popular level in forms that really didn’t capture the powerful complexity of the wonderful characters. I hope that at least I have been able to add a small amount to that great task of passing on this wonderful literature and legend.

 

L. C.

– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –

 

 

You can find out more about Lavinia Collins and her work here…

The Warrior Queen (Part I of the Guinevere Trilogy) is available athttp://www.amazon.co.uk/THE-WARRIOR-QUEEN-Guinevere-Trilogy-ebook/dp/B00IPRC0TE/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&qid=1393635696&sr=8-1&keywords=lavinia+collins

A Champion’s Duty (Part II of the Guinevere Trilogy) is available at:http://www.amazon.co.uk/CHAMPIONS-DUTY-The-Guinevere-Trilogy-ebook/dp/B00JD35Z3W/ref=pd_sim_sbs_kinc_1?ie=UTF8&refRID=1FSNYAXHG8E0B6RNQY64

Twitter: @Lavinia_Collins

Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lavinia.collins.904?ref=hl

Blog: www.vivimedieval.wordpress.com 

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Review: Lavinia Collins – The Warrior Queen (Part One of the Guinevere Trilogy)

Lavinia Collins. The Warrior Queen (Part One of the Guinevere Trilogy). Not So Noble Books, 2014. £2.99.

Lavinia Collins’ The Warrior Queen is the latest in a millennium-long line of Arthurian retellings. This post is part one of a two-part special  – part two is an interview with the author.

the warrior queen lavinia collins

Lavinia Collins’s background in medieval literature is evident in The Warrior Queen. The author holds a Masters and is currently studying for a PhD in this subject, and this comes through in the frequent nods to the medieval inheritance of her characters and their stories: the Round Table accompanies Guinevere upon her marriage to Arthur; Merlin ends up trapped in the earth by Nimue; Morgan emphasises that the scabbard is more precious by far than Arthur’s sword, to name just a few examples. Collins’ book is also an implicit homage to the later feminist reworkings of these stories from the 1980s to the present in its prioritisation of the female characters and their experiences. However, Collins’ novel, whilst paying due respect to the heritage of her material, moves beyond the scope of previous works to present us with the next step in this chain of Arthurian evolution.

The most obvious development comes in the form of Collins’ protagonist, Guinevere. Unlike Morgan le Fay, a female character of the Arthurian world who has found new life in the works of a swathe of modern feminist writers admiring her strong-willed magical independence, Guinevere hasn’t found quite the same burst of new life in recent literature. This capricious, demanding, strong-willed lady has always been my favourite Arthurian character – to me she comes across in the medieval literature as one of the most multi-faceted, complex and realistic – but sadly she just hasn’t had the treatment in modern adaptations that she deserves (except perhaps in William Morris’ beautifully sympathetic poem The Defense of Guenevere, which captures, for me, the essence of this powerful, sensual queen).

Not so in Collins’ world. Guinevere – the Warrior Queen herself – is a strong, flame-haired, leather-clad, bow-wielding princess of a Celtic Breton peoples who have been conquered by Arthur’s armies. The entire novel is narrated via this character’s perspective, and Arthur himself, in keeping with most Arthurian literature – medieval or modern – is not a character that the reader ever really gets close to. The king drifts in and out of Guinevere’s experience, and therefore her narration, as wars, his close relationships with his male companions, hunting and drinking remove him from her presence.

The novel traces Guinevere’s experiences from fighting alongside her fellow Bretons against the might of Camelot before being defeated and shipped off from her home in Carhais as a peace bride to Arthur, the famous war king, by her father, and her gradual adaptation to her queenly role, the courtly environment, and her new country’s people and expectations. The beauty of Collins’ adaptation of this material is that, like all the best Arthurian reworkings, she offers fresh new perspectives on characters and their potential motivations, whilst keeping within the framework of the basic plot as found in Sir Thomas Malory’s fifteenth-century Morte D’Arthur. Guinevere is a warrior princess whose connection to the Round Table is more than that of a mere marital dowry. Kay’s usual sullenness is given a mischievous, fay-like twist. Merlin’s actions in ensuring Arthur’s destiny have bitter consequences for Guinevere. Expect all the standard characters of medieval Arthuriana in this novel – Guinevere, Arthur, Lancelot, Morgan, Merlin, Nimue, Kay, Gawain – but characterised in thoughtful new ways.

Gender is a major theme throughout the novel  in terms of norms, roles, and expectations. Guinevere’s native Carhais is a realm where behaviour is not restricted to the male/warrior female/damsel-in-distress gender binary of some Arthurian retellings, and Collins draws attention to Guinevere’s plight to adapt to the more stifling and rigid gender norms she encounters in her new home. Personally I felt that this development constitutes a really interesting new dimension, not only to the character of Guinevere, but to our understanding and perception of the other characters and adaptations of the Arthurian corpus that have come before, and I look forward to seeing where the author takes this in the next book.

So: what about the sex? The cover image hints at the possibility of risqué content, but how steamy is the novel? When Lavinia first told me she had written an Arthurian book, she said, with a degree of characteristic British embarrassment, that it was ‘a bit naughty’. (She’s actually written a very funny and thoughtful post on her own blog about telling her parents she’d written a ‘bonkbuster’.) Yes, there is sex in the book. No, it does not drive the plot – rather, it is interwoven with key moments in the narrative, and is an indicator of the development in relations between Guinevere and her husband. Anyone who knows anything at all about Arthurian literature on even the most basic level will know about THAT love triangle – and true to her source material, this novel sees the relationships between Guinevere, Arthur and Lancelot develop gradually towards the latter half of this first book.

But I don’t want to give too much away – and at only £2.99 you really might as well read it yourself… Looking forward to hearing your thoughts in the comments below!

The Warrior Queen is the first of three books in this series, so keep your eyes peeled for part two, as well as my interview with Lavinia Collins coming up in the next instalment of this two-part blog post miniseries.

 

The Warrior Queen (Part I of the Guinevere Trilogy) is available at http://www.amazon.co.uk/THE-WARRIOR-QUEEN-Guinevere-Trilogy-ebook/dp/B00IPRC0TE/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&qid=1393635696&sr=8-1&keywords=lavinia+collins

A Champion’s Duty (Part II of the Guinevere Trilogy) is available at: http://www.amazon.co.uk/CHAMPIONS-DUTY-The-Guinevere-Trilogy-ebook/dp/B00JD35Z3W/ref=pd_sim_sbs_kinc_1?ie=UTF8&refRID=1FSNYAXHG8E0B6RNQY64

Twitter: @Lavinia_Collins

Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/lavinia.collins.904?ref=hl

Blog: www.vivimedieval.wordpress.com

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Guenevere

I was asked to write a guest post for the Ivory Diaries in a miniseries of posts chronicling Launcelot and Guenevere’s famous affair from the perspectives of various characters in the Arthurian story. The entry below charts the beginning of their forbidden love from the point of view of the leading lady herself…

I was given to Arthur with a piece of furniture – a table, to be precise – as my dowry. He ended up preferring the table.

I’m quite sure he only insisted on marrying me because Merlin told him I was trouble. Arthur always did enjoy the notion of a challenge. Merlin knew, you see, and wanted to protect his precious Arthur. He knew all this would happen with Launcelot and me. The old trickster.

But Merlin, much as he saw, had a very serious blind spot when it came to Arthur’s family. It is they that he should have paid closer attention to – Arthur’s half sisters, to be precise. Arthur created a monster (and here I don’t think I’m being too severe) when he committed that most ungodly of deeds – incest – with his half sister Morgause, and she later gave birth to a son, Mordred. They think I am ignorant of this fact, but I have many eyes and ears in this court. Just looking at that boy makes me shiver with fear. He’ll be trouble, mark my words.

I never could bring myself to touch Arthur after that. But I was still young, so young! Full of life, and wild passions, yet trapped, wasted, untouched. Bought by Arthur’s great name and his little love.

But then… him. Multitudes upon multitudes of women swooned over Launcelot – for his dark beauty, his prowess and chivalry, and his mysterious fey-touched upbringing by the Lady of the Lake. They said he’d never been overcome in battle, unless by treason or enchantment. I rolled my eyes to myself when I heard tell of his reputation, determined not to be impressed (I have always been of a contrary disposition). He arrived at court and the furore was unbelievable. All over one man! No one could be that impressive.

We held a great tournament, and as predicted, Launcelot won the day. As was customary, he dedicated all of his deeds of arms to me, as his queen. His performance had been undeniably impressive and I started to understand what the fuss was about.

But it was later, when evening fell as soft as a caress: the candles had been lit and the little insects had started their chorus, that I understood the true worth of the man. On that balmy summer night, full of hinted promise, Launcelot walked with me around my gardens. Peacocks wandered underneath the trees. Alone, all of his bravado melted away, and we were just a man and a woman, talking. We laughed, and the world itself sparkled. He truly saw me – my strengths and my flaws, all. And he loved me. It is the greatest gift of my admittedly privileged life.

Words, and a few stolen kisses, were all that we enjoyed for some time. We both fought against this adulterous, treacherous fate. But fate goes ever as it must, and eventually we became lovers. Launcelot is the truest lover that ever lived. I know women constantly throw themselves at his feet, but I also know, as surely as I know my own name, that he will never love another but me, in heart, mind or body. Something I certainly never had with Arthur.

Our love is not easy. We are often apart. Admittedly, I have a tendency to caprice and whimsy, and can make Launcelot’s life difficult in many ways, but missing someone constantly can make us behave in strange ways, and he understands that as he understands me. My bigger concern is that I’m sure Arthur’s nephews know about us… They will make trouble for us one day, no doubt. I have seen Agravain watching from dark corners as Launcelot and I talk. I have seen him whispering wickedly with Mordred. But there is absolutely no way that I am going to give up the most precious part of my life. I have too few other joys.

Some say that Launcelot and I will be the downfall of Arthur and Camelot. To them I say: have you not seen the many other fractures in this place; the wicked things that go on here, and the wicked people? Launcelot and I are the purest thing in this whole wretched kingdom, and no matter what else happens, I know that we will meet a good end, because our love is true.

Reproduced with kind permission from the Ivory Diaries.

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